Thursday, 25 April 2013

CHEMISTRY FORM 4 PAPER 3


Chapter 3 – Chemical Formulae and Equations
List of PEKA experiments:
  1. Empirical formula of copper(II) oxide
  2. Empirical formula of magnesium oxide
  3. Chemical equations
NumberActivity 3.4
Pg.23
TitleEmpirical formula of copper(II) oxide
AimTo determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide
Problem StatementHow does the formula of copper(II) oxide determine?
HypothesisThe empirical formula of copper(II) oxide can be determined by finding out the mass of copper and oxygen in a sample of copper(II) oxide
Apparatus
  • U tube
  • Stoppers
  • Glass tube
  • Combustion tube with a small hole at the end
  • Retort stand and clamp
  • Spatula
  • Porcelain dish
  • Bunsen burner
  • Balance
Preparation for hydrogen gas
  • Thistle funnel
  • Flat-bottomed flask
Material
  • Hydrogen gas, H2
  • Copper(II) oxide
  • Anhydrous calcium chloride, CaCl2
  • Wooden splinter
Preparation for the hydrogen gas
  • Dilute hydrochloric acid
  • Zinc pieces
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Mass of copper oxide
  • Responding variable: Mass of copper formed
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: An excess of hydrogen gas
===============================================
NumberActivity 3.5
Pg.25
TitleEmpirical formula of magnesium oxide
AimTo determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide
Problem StatementHow does the formula of magnesium oxide determine?
HypothesisThe empirical formula of magnesium oxide is MgO
Apparatus
  • Crucible with lid
  • Tongs
  • Bunsen burner
  • Tripod stand
  • Pipe-clay triangle
Material
  • 10 cm magnesium ribbon
  • Sandpaper
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Magnesium ribbon
  • Responding variable: Mass of magnesium oxide
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Length / Mass of magnesium ribbon and excess air
===============================================
NumberActivity 3.6
Pg.27
TitleChemical equations
AimTo construct balanced chemical equations
A. Heating of copper(II) carbonate
B. Reaction of ammonia gas and hydrochloric acid / Formation of ammonium chloride
C. Reaction of lead(II) nitrate and potassium iodide / Precipitation of lead(II) iodide
Problem StatementHow does the chemical equations determine?
HypothesisA. The chemical equation of copper(II) carbonate is CuCO3 –> CuO + CO2
B. The chemical equation of
Apparatus
  • Boiling tube
  • Test tubes
  • Rubber bung with delivery tube
  • Test tube rack
  • Test tube holder
  • Stoppers
  • Bunsen burner
Material
  • Copper(II) carbonate powder
  • Lime water
  • Concentrated ammonia solution
  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid
  • Lead(II) nitrate solution
  • Potassium iodide solution
VariablesA. Heating of copper(II) carbonate
  • Manipulated variable: Mass of copper(II) carbonate
  • Responding variable: Mass of copper oxide formed / Volume of carbon dioxide liberated
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Pressure
B. Reaction of ammonia gas and hydrochloric acid / Formation of ammonium chloride
  • Manipulated variable: Concentration of ammonia and hydrochloric acid
  • Responding variable: Ammonium chloride formed
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Temperature and pressure
C. Reaction of lead(II) nitrate and potassium iodide / Precipitation of lead(II) iodide
  • Manipulated variable: Volume of lead(II) nitrate solution and volume of potassium iodide solution
  • Responding variable: Mass of lead(II) iodide formed
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Temperature and pressure

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